Symmetric Techniques for Advanced Protocols

(Website under development)

The term STAP (Symmetric Techniques for Advanced Protocols) was first introduced in STAP’23, an affiliated workshop of Eurocrypt’23. It generally refers to algorithms in symmetric cryptography specifically designed to be efficient in new advanced cryptographic protocols. These contexts include zero-knowledge (ZK) proofs, secure multiparty computation (MPC) and (fully) homomorphic encryption (FHE) environments. It encompasses everything from arithmetization-oriented hash functions to homomorphic encryption-friendly stream ciphers.


We present a collection of proposed symmetric primitives fitting the STAP description and keep track of recent advances regarding their security and consequent updates. These may be filtered according to their features; we categorize them into different groups regarding primitive-type (STAP block cipher, STAP stream cipher, STAP permutation or STAP hash function) and use-case (FHE, MPC and ZK).

For each STAP-primitive, we provide a brief overview of its main cryptographic characteristics, including:

  • Basic general information: designers, year, conference/journal where it was first introduced and reference.
  • Basic cryptographic properties such as description of the primitive (and relevant diagrams when applicable), use-case and proposed parameter sets.
  • Relevant known attacks/weaknesses.
  • Properties of its best hardware implementation.

When applicable, we also mention connections and relations between different designs.

STAP Lounge

The STAP Wiki currently collects information about the following list of primitives:

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